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Abstract

EREMOMASTAX POLYSPERMA (BENTH.) DANDY (ACANTHACEAE): A PHYTOPHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDY

Umoh Romanus A.*, Johnny Imoh I., Anah Victor U., Udoh Anwanabasi E., Umoh Omodot T. and Uno Kanu U.

Abstract

The quality control parameters of various medicinal plants used in indigenous system of medicine are becoming more relevant today and are important tools in the formulation of high quality herbal products. The aim of this study was to employ the quality control parameters in the evaluation of the leaf and stem of Eremomastax polysperma. The plant leaves and stems were collected, air dried, pulverized and stored in a clean glass container. Standard procedures were carried out to obtain the microscopic features of the fresh and powdered sample, micromeritic, chemomicroscopy, fluorescence properties, soluble extractive values, moisture contents and ash values. Results of the microscopic study using the fresh and powdered leaf samples revealed the presence of diallelocytic, pericytic and copericytic stomata, on both abaxial and adaxial surfaces and multicellular trichromes with mean length of 68.30±3.81μm and 53.77±6.06. Results of the micromeritic properties of the powdered samples showed bulk volumes of 50.00±0.17cm and 42.50±0.24cm, tapped volume of 35.17±0.14cm and 28.67±0.27cm, bulk density of 0.20±0.00g/ml and 0.24±0.33g/ml, tapped density of 0.29±0.00g/ml and 0.35±0.01g/ml, flow rate of 0.46±0.03g/s and 0.33±0.00g/s, angle of repose of 37.20±0.44 and 37.89±0.44 degrees, Carr’s index of 31.03±0.82% and 31.43±0.82%, Hausner’s ratio of 1.45±0.02 and 1.46±0.02, true density of 1.68±0.02 and 2.10±0.07, parking fraction of 0.12±0.00 and 0.11±0.01, PH of 6.55 and 6.68 when cold, 6.39 and 6.40 when hot for the powdered leaf and stem respectively. Chemomicroscopy study revealed the presence of lignin, mucilage, calcium oxalate crystals, protein and oil in both leaf and stem, while starch was present in leaf only. Calcium carbonate was absent in both leaf and stem samples. Results for the ethanol-soluble extractive values were 3.00±0.00%w/w and 2.50±0.00%w/w, water-soluble extractive values were 5.00±0.00%w/w and 3.50±0.00%w/w, methanol-soluble extractive values were 4.00±0.04%w/w and 2.50±0.00%w/w for the powdered leaf and stem respectively. Results for the moisture contents were 10.50±0.01%w/w and 9.50±0.00%w/w, total ash values were 20.00±0.00%w/w and 15.50±0.00%w/w, acid-insoluble ash values were 2.00±0.00%w/w and 1.00±0.00% w/w, water-soluble ash values were 4.50±0.00%w/w and 3.50±0.00%w/w, sulfated ash values were 29.50±0.01%w/w and 24.50±0.02w/w. In conclusion, the above evaluation methods and parameters therein could be used to identify and authenticate both the fresh and powdered crude drug products of Eremomastax polysperma.

Keywords: Chemomicroscopy, Erimomastax polysperma, Micromeritic, Phytopharmacognostic, Phytotherapeutics


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