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Abstract

A CASE REPORT ON EXTREME HYPONATREMIA WITH NEUROLOGIC SYMPTOMS

Aiswarya Vasavan*, Dr. Dhanya Dharman and Dr. Shaiju S. Dharan

Abstract

Hyponatremia is the most common clinical electrolyte disorder and is associated with neurologic manifestations like slurring of speech, risk of fall, drowsiness and cognitive impairment. Such neurologic defects are associated with a reduction in quality of life and may be a significant cause of mortality. However, because underlying diseases such as adrenal insufficiency, heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and cancer may also affect brain function, the contribution of hyponatremia alone to neurologic manifestations and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Serum sodium concentration is an important determinant of several biological pathways and studies have suggested that hyponatremia carries a significant risk of neurological impairment even in the absence of brain edema. The brain can also be affected by the treatment of hyponatremia, which, if not undertaken cautiously, could lead to osmotic demyelination syndrome, a rare demyelinating brain disorder that occurs after rapid correction of severe hyponatremia.

Keywords: Hyponatremia, Osmolarity, Serum Sodium, Adrenal insufficiency.


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