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Abstract

NEUROLOGICAL MANIFESTATION OF COVID-19: A SHORT REVIEW

Neelakshi Pal and Kuntal Gupta*

Abstract

During the ongoing COVID-19 infection, one must understand all the aspects of this deadly disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus, to make the world disease-free. This review which attempts at understanding the causes, mechanisms and symptoms of various neurological diseases manifested post-COVID infection is one such aspect. SARSCoV- 2 virus invades the human systems through receptors namely ACE-2 and TMPSS2, through haematological, neurological or the inflammatory route. The epithelial cells for olfaction and sensory ciliated neurons are affected, impairing smell perception. The viral replication within the taste buds and peripheral chemoreceptors damages the cranial nerves responsible for gustation. Encephalopathy occurs in various forms including lesion of the right temporal lobe, delirium, corpus callosum injury, oedema, nystagmus and cerebritis. The clumping of blood within the vessels is common. Since endothelium is spread all over the body, no organs, except a few, are spared from viral infection. GBS characterized by weakness of lower limbs, paralysis, myelitis and Miller- Fisher syndrome are prominent. Blurred vision, pupillary defects, retinal vasculitis occur during optic neuritis damaging optic nerves of the orbital cortex. Hearing loss, clot-formation in cochlea and auditory pathway occur during sensorineural impairment. Nociceptors get hyper-stimulated causing pain. The cytokine storm releasing inflammatory mediators is another manifestation.

Keywords: COVID-19, neurological, coagulopathy, encephalopathy, inflammation.


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