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Abstract

A REVIEW ON URINARY CALCULI-TYPES, CAUSES, ITS MECHANISM, DIAGNOSIS, PREVENTION AND MEDICAL EXPULSION THERAPY OF CALCULI

Catherine Samantha*, Avani S. L., E. Sam Jeeva Kumar and Prasobh G. R.

Abstract

Urolithiasis is a major problem present in worldwide. The process of formation of stones in the kidney, bladder, or in urethra is called as Urolithiasis. This has been seen in all cultural and racial groups. The pathogenetic mechanisms of stone formation are complex and they involve both metabolic and environmental risk factors. Stone formation is one of the painful urologic disorders that occur in about 12% of the global population and its re-occurrence rate in males is about 70-81% whereas 47-60% in female. Over the past 20 years, kidney stones become worldwide problem with a marked increase in prevalence. The hallmark of stones that obstruct the ureter or renal pelvis was extreme intermittent pain that radiates from the flank to the groin or to the genital area and inner thigh. The stone type is usually named after its mineral composition. The most common type of kidney stones found in worldwide contains calcium. The modality of treatment depends on many factors like size of stone, type of stone and site of stone. Medical treatments for expulsion of urinary calculi provide a noninvasive, relatively cheaper and safer alternatives to open surgery as well as to minimally invasive surgery for small stones. Medical expulsive therapies, especially alpha-blockers and calcium channel blockers have been shown to be effective in expulsion of urinary calculi.

Keywords: Urolithiasis, Kidney stone, Medical expulsive treatment.


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