WJPR Citation New

  All Since 2011
 Citation  2903  2393
 h-index  27  24
 i10-index  68  60

Login

Best Paper Awards

World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (WJPR) will give best paper award in every issue in the form of money along with certificate to promote research activity of scholar.
            Best Paper Award :

Download Article: Click Here

Search

Track Your Article

Abstract

THE ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTION IN SURFICIAL SEDIMENTS OF THE FLINT CREEK AND FLINT RIVER WATERSHEDS: AN INDEX ANALYSIS APPROACH

Paul Okweye*, Karnita Garner and Nikita Sheeley

Abstract

Sedimentation is a significant problem in Alabama’s rivers and other water bodies in watersheds impacted by erosion from farmland, urban areas, and stream banks and beds. Accumulation of sediment reduces water depth and quality and impacts such uses as water supply, fish and benthic habitats. An Index Analysis approach was used to assess the heavy metal pollution in surficial sediments of the Flint Creek and Flint River Watersheds in Northern, Alabama. The soil / sediment samples were analyzed using the EPA analytical method SW-6010B for total recoverable elements that are environmental contaminants of concern (such as Al, Fe, Mn, As, and Pb). The concentration of metals showed significant variability, 3300-25800 mg kg−1 for Aℓ; 3300- 51700 mg kg−1 for Fe; 56.40-2010 mg kg−1 for Mn; 1.21-15.20 mg kg−1 for As; and, 4.83-57.90 mg kg−1 for Pb respectively. All metals analyzed for this study at both watersheds were statistically significant (at P ≤ 0.05). The indexes used in this study were Geo-accumulation Index (Igeo), Enrichment Factor (EF), Pollution Load Index (PLI) and Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment for sediment dwelling organisms using consensus-based sediment quality guidelines. Different indexes gave diverse status of FC and FR watershed’s soil/sediment quality. The selected heavy metals were studied to determine the presence of contaminants and extent of anthropogenic and lithogenic inputs from urban and rural activities. Comparison of the metal levels in the sediments from different areas of the watersheds indicates that there is a significant anthropogenic input to the watersheds. The enrichment factor, geo-accumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (CF), and Pollution Load Index has been calculated to assess the degree of pollution in sediments. The geo-accumulation index shows that Aℓ, Fe, Mn, As, and Pb moderately polluted the sediments at all sites of the two watersheds. Flint Creek sediments appear to have higher levels of environmental contaminants than Flint River, however, the concentrations of most of the elements appeared to be below, and some are above biologically significant threshold levels. Nevertheless, long-term bioaccumulation of these contaminants can result in impacts on benthic organisms and it should be cause for concern.

Keywords: Total recoverable metals; surficial sediment; anthropogenic input; lithogenic; Index of geo-accumulation; sediment quality guidelines (SQGs).


[Full Text Article]

Call for Paper

World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (WJPR)
Read More

Email & SMS Alert

World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (WJPR)
Read More

Article Statistics

World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (WJPR)
Read More

Online Submission

World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (WJPR)
Read More