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Abstract

PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATION OF ORAL MUCOSAL LESIONS WITH TOBACCO RELATED HABITS AMONG PATIENTS REPORTING TO DENTAL INSTITUTION IN GHAZIABAD

Dr. Geetika Arora, Dr. Aastha Manchanda, Dr. Divya Gupta, *Dr. Nidhi Aggarwal,  *Dr. Akshay Rai Ridla

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Abstract

Aim: The aim of this study is to find out, through a questionnaire, the prevalence and association of oral mucosal lesions among patients with different types of tobacco related habits reporting to a dental institution in Ghaziabad, UP and to find out its association with the consumed tobacco products. Materials and Methods: A descriptive prospective study was conducted in Inderprastha Dental College and Hospital, comprising of all patients who attended the outpatient department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, from November 2019 to January 2020. Diagnosis was exclusively based on the history, clinical findings, and the characteristic location of the lesions. All the patients were examined by one oral medicine and radiology specialist and the details of them were recorded in a specially designed proforma which included demographic data, and personal history regarding various tobacco related habits and the lesion present. Chi-square test and T test were used to find significance of study parameters using S.P.S.S software version 21. Results: Our study revealed an increase in the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions among young and middle aged people having tobacco related habits, more commonly in males than females. These people are mostly the ones with primary education employed in unskilled occupation followed by highly educated people with post graduate degree. Married people comprised of a major section of patients with the habits and lesions than the unmarried ones. Among the ones who use smokeless form of tobacco, gutkha chewing was found to be more prevalent with lesions like chemical reaction, angular cheilitis, smoker’s palate more prevalent unlike other studies which show increased prevalence of OSMF with gutkha chewing. In patients habitual to smoking form of tobacco, bidi smoking was found to be more prevalent causing lesions like chemical reaction, angular chielitis, smoker’s palate. Lichen planus was found to be more prevelant among cigarette smokers. The most common site for the lesions observed was buccal mucosa followed by hard palate and commissures. Conclusion: The study showed that the risk of the development of oral lesions associated with tobacco smoking, chewing, or both is quite high. Majority of individuals with tobacco related habits were married males belonging to the young and middle age group employed in unskilled occupation with primary education. Gutkha chewing was seen to be more prevelant in individuals habitual with smokeless form of tobacco and bidi smoking was seen to be more prevelant in patients with smoking form of tobacco. Lesions like chemical reaction, angular cheilitis, smoker’s palate were found to be more prevalent with both gutkha chewing and bidi smoking. The most common site for the lesions was buccal mucosa. The study data can serve as a useful tool in educating the patients with deleterious habit of chewing form of tobacco. Early screening of these lesions can play a vital role for early intervention and prevention of oral cancer.

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