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Abstract

OVERVIEW ON IMMOBILIZATION

*Michele Vitolo

.

Abstract

Immobilization is a technique in which a biocatalyst (enzymes, cells, organelles, monoclonal antibodies etc.) is linked to a support (alginate, nitrocellulose, chitin, among others). The main immobilization types are: a) immobilization by physical retention or entrapment (matrix entrapment and membrane enclosure. The latter includes encapsulation, microencapsulation, and UF-membrane compartmentalization); b) immobilization by binding (adsorption, covalent bonding, and cross-linking). Moreover, the reversible immobilization was also discussed, especially the use of laser beams as tweezers and scissors as a potential tool for gene therapy. Immobilization aims to stabilize and recover the biocatalyst and allows the use of immobilized biocatalysts in continuous bioreactors. This technique has been developed since the 1960s. Currently, it is used in bioreactors, biosensors (enzyme electrodes and nano-probes), and clinical analysis (kits for enzyme immunoassays).

Keywords: Immobilization, biocatalysts.


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