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Abstract

CLASSIFICATIONS, PREVALENCE AND MAJOR RISK FACTORS FOR DIABETIC RETINOPATHY (DR)

*Raju K. Dhavale, H. V. Kamble, Ashvini Andhale and Santosh Waghmare

Abstract

Worldwide, Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness among working age adult's. It is a microvascular disorder occuring due to long term effects of diabetes, leading to visionthreatening damage to the retina, eventually leading to blindness. The DR falls into two broad categories: the earlier stage of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and the advanced stage of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and other have diabetic molecular edema (DME) into focal and diffuse subtypes. The risk factors are mainly related to age, the duration of diabetes, blood suger level, high blood pressure, Gestational diabetes and other factors such as obesity, dyslipidemia and nephropathy were variable associated with DR. Whereas smoking, hyperlipidemia and obesity were associated with significant reduction in the risk for DR among type 2 diabetes. One of the major risk factor for diabetic retinopathy is a long duration of diabetes, the condition is caused by persistently high blood suger levels damaging the small thread-like blood vessels that supply the retina, the evidence from clinical trials has demonstrated beneficial effect of tight BP control an risk of DR patients with diabetes and hypertension. The pregnant women with gestational diabetes are at a greater risk of developing diabetic retinopathy, and the other risk factors such as body mass index (BMI), Obesity, Poor glycemic control and Nephropathy shows controversies in relation to its association with this disease.

Keywords: Classifications of DR, Risk factors: Diabetes mellitus, Blood Suger level, Blood pressure, Gestational diabetes, Smoking, Dyslipidemia, Nephropathy.


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