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Abstract

PHYTOCHEMICAL PROFILING AND ANTIULCER POTENTIALS OF ETHYLACETATE EXTRACT OF STEM BARK OF KHAYA GRANDIFOLIOLA C.DC (MELIACEAE)

Odoh Uchenna Estella*, Anyanwutaku Deborah, Ezugwu Christopher Obodike, Chukwuma Michael Onyegbulam, Ezejiofor Madu, Osuala felix Ngozi, Vincent chukwube, Diovu Edith, Okonta Oboma, Udodeme Helen, Peculiar Feenna Onyekere, Ugwu patience, Felix Nwafor

Abstract

Khaya grandifoliola of the family Meliaceae is a medicinal plant that have been implicated in traditional medicine in the West African region for the treatment of illnesses like fever, malaria, cough, bacterial Infections, Stomach aches, gastric pains and remedy against worm infestations. The plant is also known for its characteristic antiulcer properties which are believed to be attributed to phytochemicals such as Alkaloids, saponins and Flavonoids. Synthetic drugs used in the treatment of gastrointestinal tract infections are known to cause adverse drug reactions as a result of synthetic chemicals associated with them hence, the need to sought traditional and safe drugs for treating infections of the gastrointestinal tract. Khaya grandifoliola was used for this study, and the plant was evaluated for its antiulcer properties. A 500g weight of the plant was obtained after chopping, drying and grinding the bark for the extraction process. The plant extract was obtained using ethyl acetate by cold maceration and a toxicity test was carried out to determined the doses that will be administered to the mice. Indomethacin was used to induced pectic Ulcer in 20 albino rats and ethanol for another 20 albino rats. The rats were then divided into 5 groups (A, B, C, D and E) for both models. Groups A and B received 100 and 200 mg/kg of plant extract respectively, Group C 400mg/kg, group D received Omeprazole (20 mg/kg) for indomethacin induced and ethanol induced respectively and Group E which was the negative control received Tween 80. After 8 hours of the treatment the animals were sacrificed and their stomach examined with a hand lens to determine the extent of the ulcer inhibition. Phytochemicals like alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, steroids, carbohydrates, proteins, reducing sugar and oils were found in the crude extract. Acute toxicity revealed a high therapeutic index and the plant is relatively safe for consumption. The percentage ulcer inhibition of the crude extract was highest (92.11 %) at 400mg/kg for indomethacin induced and highest (97.56 %) at 400mg/kg for ethanol induced. These results are statistically comparable with the standard Omeprazole (88.16 %) and (65.85 %) at 20mg/kg respectively. The plant has a profound antiulcer activity. The crude extract was a claim by traditional leaders in Akure. It is also relatively safe for consumption as indicated by the toxicity test.

Keywords: Khaya grandifoliola, antiulcer, phytochemical analysis, acute toxicity, extract.


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