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Abstract

PHARMACOGNOSTIC and PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF METHANOL CRUDE EXTRACT AND FRACTIONS OF THE LEAVES OF DACRYODES KLAINEANA (PIERRE) H.J.LAM (BURSERACEAE)

Ebere Ifejirika Ezeonyi*, Okonkwo Onyinye Blessing, Ezelota judith Chinelo, Onyeka Ifeanyi Peter, Oranu Emmanuel Chuks and Ibe Chioma Ifeoma

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Abstract

Dacryodes klaineana (Pierre); belong to the family Burseraceae, the pulverized leaves is employed traditionally as an enema against painful menstruation, treatment of malaria, stomach upset, and treatment of Ulcers in Onitsha, South-eastern Nigeria. Due to its economic value and increasing ethno medicinal importance, appropriate identification and evaluation are vital to prevent adulteration. This research article offers a scrupulous pharmacognostic, physicochemical, and phytochemical evaluation on the leaves of Dacryodes klaineana which will help in the identification of the crude drug. Methods: The leaves were extracted using methanol, the crude methanol extract was then fractionated using solvents of increasing polarity (n-Hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous) fraction. The qualitative, quantitative phytochemical constituents and physicochemical properties were performed based on standard procedures by World Health Organization (WHO). Results: The Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening of Dacryodes klaineana (Pierre) showed Flavonoids, Tannins, Saponins, and Alkaloids at 9.3, 10.2, 16.2, and 3.6% respectively as the major phytochemical constituents, the crude ethanol extract has highest content of the aforementioned phytoconstituent. The total ash, water-soluble ash, acid insoluble ash compositions were 15, 5.5, 4.5% respectively. The moisture content, alcohol soluble extractive, and water-soluble extractive values obtained were 6.3, 3.8, and 5.5% respectively. Conclusion: The pharmacognostic standards of the leaves of Dacryodes klaineana were determined and serve as quality control parameters for their identification, purity, and standardization.

Keywords: Pharmacognostic, Phytochemical, Physicochemical, Microscopic, Dacryodes klaineana.


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