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Abstract

PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF SIAM WEED (Chromolaena odorata L.) ON SELECTED CLINICAL ORGANISMS USING TWO DIFFERENT SOLVENTS

*Nkaa F. A., Okpe O. A. and Udogu, O. F.

Abstract

This study evaluated the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical contents and antimicrobial activities of the leaf extracts of Chromolaena odorata. Chloroform and ethyl acetate were used in extracting the bioactive components of the leaves, while crude extract was obtained by squeezing fresh leaves. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were carried out using agar well diffusion method. The result of the phytochemical test showed that tannin, phenol, alkaloids and flavonoids were present with saponins absent in the leaf extracts of C. odorata at varying levels. The quantitative analysis showed that tannin contents of the extracts ranged from 5.54 - 8.10%. The phenol, alkaloids and flavonoids content ranged from 2.20 - 5.25%, 3.20 – 7.50% and 4.02 - 7.22% respectively. The antimicrobial study showed that the chloroform extract had the inhibition of 21.00 mm (Salmonella enterica), 25.00 mm (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), 29.00 mm (Staphylococcus aureus), 13.33 mm (Penicilium digitatum) and 17.33 mm (Rhizopus stolonifer). The zone of inhibition obtained for ethyl acetate extract were 19.00 mm (Salmonella enterica), 20.00 mm (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), 21.00 mm (Staphylococcus aureus), 11.67 mm (Penicilium digitatum) and 11.67 mm (Rhizopus stolonifer), while the inhibition zone obtained for crude extract were 15.00 mm (Salmonella enterica), 10.67 mm (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), 8.67 mm (Staphylococcus aureus), 14.00 mm (Penicilium digitatum) and 11.00 mm (Rhizopus stolonifer). The control (gentamicin/ketoconazole) showed the inhibition between 32mm and 44mm for all the test organisms. The extracts however, showed varying minimum inhibitory concentration against the test organisms, with ethyl acetate extract having the least MIC (3.125 mg/ml) against most of the test organisms.

Keywords: Phytochemical, Antimicrobial, Chromolaena odorata, Clinical organisms, Chloroform, Ethyl acetate and crude extract.


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