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Abstract

GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS: AN OVERVIEW WITH EMPHASIS ON THERAPEUTIC APPROACHES

Afra Balan*

Abstract

Gestational diabetes is the most common complication of pregnancy. Morbidity and mortality of both the mother and infant are prone to increase in women with untreated gestational diabetes. However, over the years with proper screening, antenatal care, lifestyle and therapeutic interventions this has declined drastically. Risk of preeclampsia, cesarean section, premature delivery and excessive weight gain as well as neonatal complications like polyhydramnios, macrosomia, fetal hypoglycemia, shoulder dystocia and respiratory distress syndrome are increased in women having gestational diabetes mellitus. All women of reproductive age diagnosed to have diabetes should undergo preconception counseling to have improved materno-fetal outcomes. Medical nutritional therapy and physical activity are the main stay in the management of adequately controlled GDM; while insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents are required for the management of uncontrolled gestational diabetes. This article deals with definition, risk factors, pathophysiology, complications, and management approaches towards gestational diabetes. Other investigational approaches like probiotics, vitamin D and fish oil are also discussed under this article.

Keywords: Gestational diabetes, metformin, insulin, management, medical nutritional therapy, probiotics, vitamin D.


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