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Abstract

VIRAL ENCEPHALITIS: ETIOLOGY, PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, DIAGNOSIS, AND MANAGEMENT

Rohit Choure*, Gowtham M., Deepak Pisote, Narayan Lande, Akshay D. Nehe and Sanket Gadhe

Abstract

Encephalitis is a severe brain infection. Encephalitis is caused by either a viral or bacterial infection, with the latter being more frequent. Here, we highlight the most frequent and important viruses known to cause encephalitis. In persons with weakened immune systems, parasitic or protozoal infections such as toxoplasmosis, malaria, or primary amoebic meningoencephalitis can also cause encephalitis. As the inflamed brain presses against the skull, brain damage develops, which can lead to death. Acyclovir may also be effective in the treatment of varicella-zoster virus encephalitis, as may gancyclovir and foscarnet in the treatment of cytomegalovirus encephalitis and pleconaril in the treatment of enterovirus encephalitis (IV class of evidence). Corticosteroids are not usually thought to be beneficial as an additional therapy for acute viral encephalitis, and their usage is disputed.

Keywords: Encephalitis, Herpesviruses, Arboviruses.


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