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Abstract

PATTERN OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN ACINETOBACTER BAUMANNII, REVIEW

Assist. Prof. Dr. Riad A. Dellol* and Assist. Lecturer Zena F. Alwash

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Abstract

Acinetobacter baumannii pathogenesis, including porins, capsular polysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, phospholipases, outer membrane vesicles, metal acquisition systems, and protein secretion systems. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance of this organism, including acquirement of b-lactamases, up-regulation of multidrug efflux pumps, modification of aminoglycosides, permeability defects, and alteration of target sites, are also discussed. Lastly, novel prospective treatment options for infections caused by multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is a leading cause of nosocomial infections as this pathogen has certain attributes that facilitate the subversion of natural defenses of the human body. A. baumannii acquires antibiotic resistance determinants easily and can thrive on both biotic and abiotic surfaces. Different resistance mechanisms or determinants, both transmissible and non-transmissible, have aided in this victory over antibiotics. In addition, the propensity to form biofilms (communities of organism attached to a surface) allows the organism to persist in hospitals on various medical surfaces (cardiac valves, artificial joints, catheters, endotracheal tubes, and ventilators) and also evade antibiotics simply by shielding the bacteria and increasing its ability to acquire foreign genetic material through lateral gene transfer. The biofilm formation rate in A. baumannii is higher than in other species. Some of the properties that make A. baumannii a serious pathogen include its capacity to tolerate high levels of stress and enhanced expression of efflux pumps that enable high degrees of antibiotic resistance.

Keywords: Bacterial infection, Antimicrobial resistance, Acinetobacter baumannii, Resistance mechanism, Virulence factor.


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