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Abstract

A REVIEW OF THE CAUSE, OCCURRENCE, CLINICAL SIGNS, EPIDEMIOLOGY, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF BUFFALO MAMMILLITIS

Shridhar N. B.*

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Abstract

Mammillitis is a condition that causes sudden teat inflammation, enlargement, difficulty milking, difficulty suckle, and the formation of black necrotic patches with circumscribed necrotic areas on the teat base in she buffaloes. It is a disease of buffaloes associated with bovine herpes mammillitis virus 2 (BHV2). Vesicle formation, a characteristic feature of early stages of the disease in cow is either absent or occurs rarely in dairy buffaloes. Stress of calving and hormonal changes close to calving are important predisposing factors. The condition is usually sporadic although outbreaks have also been documented. It is more prevalent in buffaloes in their first lactation. Therapeutic interventions be used for the treatment of topical and parenteral administration of antibiotics, topical administration of lysine/propolis, topical and oral administration of acyclovir (An antiherpes virus drug), oral administration of zinc sulphate and other immunity enhancing agents and parenteral administration of antihistamine, lithium antimony thiomalate, acyclovir and anti-inflammatory drugs. Future research proposals include investigating the oral use of zinc sulphate, local infiltration of acyclovir into the lesions, and the use of an infrared lamp to raise the temperature of the lesion. There is currently no vaccine available. Biosecurity, prevention and proper treatment, insect control, and milking time hygiene are all recommended control and prevention measures.

Keywords: Buffalo, Mammillitis, Bovine Herpes Virus, Therapy, Drugs.


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