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Abstract

PHARMACOGNOSTIC PROFILING AND ANTIPYRETIC POTENTIALS OF METHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF VERNONIA GLABERRIMA WELW. EX O.HOFFM (COMPOSITAE)

Odoh Uchenna Estella*, Aniju Kenechukwu Victor, Chukwuma Micheal, Peculiar Feenna Onyekere, Ezugwu Obodike Christopher, Ezejiofor Madu, Vincent chukwube, Okonta Oboma, Diovu Edith, Udodeme Helen, Felix Nwafor and Osuala Felix Ngozi

Abstract

Vernonia glaberrima has been traditionally used in relieving pain and inflammatory conditions as well as in treatment of feverish and malaria conditions by local people of the South-east Nigeria. Consequently, this study aims at evaluating the phytochemical content and antipyretic properties of Vernonia glaberrima. The leaf of V. glaberrima was Soxhlet extracted with methanol. Phytochemical test was conducted to ascertain the secondary metabolites present in the extract using standard procedures. Acute toxicity (LD50) of the extract on laboratory mice was estimated by following protocols of Lorke. Pyrexia was induced using 20 mg/ml of 20 % turpentine and extract was given at doses of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg. Aspirin (100 mg/kg) was used as the standard (positive control), while tween was used as the negative control. Phytochemicals present include flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids glycosides, and oils which might be responsible for the pharmacological activities. There was no sign of toxicity or death recorded at the dose of 5000 mg/kg of the extract which indicates that its safe. The antipyretic study showed that the plant extract at 400 mg/kg was able to reverse pyrexia since it was able to bring back the body temperature of the test animals to normal (37 OC) by causing an average decrease in temperature of 3.3%. Comparison of the potency of the extract and the standard drug (Aspirin) showed that the standard drug was more potent than the extract. A 3.6% decrease in temperature was observed at a dose of 100 mg/kg of the standard drug. These results demonstrate that the plant extract has antipyretic activity.

Keywords: Vernonia glaberrima, antipyretic, phytochemical anlysis, pyrexia, acute toxicity test.


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