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Abstract

PSORIASIS DIGNOSIS AND ITS TREATMENT BY TOPICAL FORMULATION

Pooja Sharma*, Anshul Sharma, Pratibha Singh and Sakshi Sharma

Abstract

Plaque psoriasis is the most common variant of psoriasis. The most rapid advancements addressing plaque psoriasis have been in its pathogenesis, genetics, comorbidities, and biologic treatments. Biologics that inhibit TNF-α, p40IL-12/23, and IL-17 are also approved for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis. The most commonly prescribed light therapy used to treat plaque psoriasis is narrowband UV-B phototherapy. Fumaric acid esters (FAEs) like dimethylfumarate (DMF) are used for the treatment of adults with moderate to severe psoriasis. the molecular mechanisms by which DMF and its active metabolite monomethylfumarate (MMF) exert their anti-inflammatory and immune modulatory effects. Biological therapy became available for psoriasis with the introduction of alefacept at the beginning of this century. Up to then, systemic treatment options comprised small molecule drugs, targeting the immune system in a non-specific manner. This review offers an overview of biologics developed for psoriasis and illustrate a historical progress in the treatment of this common chronic inflammatory skin condition. Psoriasis is an ancient, universal chronic skin disease with a significant geographical variability, with the lowest incidence rate at the equator, increasing towards the poles. We discuss the strengths and limitations of the various models and the lessons learned. We conclude that, so far, there is no one model that can meet all of the research needs. Therefore, the choice model system will depend on the questions being addressed. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is characterized by plaque, inverse, guttate, pustular, and erythrodermic variants. This review focuses on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of cutaneous psoriasis. Other related topics discussed include peristomal psoriasis, the Koebner phenomenon, and the relationship between biologic therapy and wound complications. The pathogenesis of psoriasis is complex and the exact mechanism remains elusive. There is no cure for psoriasis at the present time, and much of the treatment involves managing the symptoms. The biologics, while lacking the adverse effects associated with some of the traditional medications such as corticosteroids and methotrexate, have their own set of side effects, which may include reactivation of latent infections. Significant challenges remain in developing safe and efficacious novel targeted therapies that depend on a better understanding of the immunological dysfunction in psoriasis. Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a subtype of pustular psoriasis characterized by painful and occasionally disfiguring cutaneous manifestations with sepsis-like systemic symptoms. Affecting any age and race, GPP can occur with other forms of psoriasis or by itself. Treatment is not well established, but includes the use of retinoids, methotrexate, cyclosporine, corticosteroids, TNF-alpha inhibitors, topical therapy and phototherapy. The use of TNF-alpha inhibitors may result in the formation of antidrug antibodies and should be administered with methotrexate.

Keywords: retinoids, methotrexate, cyclosporine, corticosteroids.


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