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Abstract

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY ON ABUSIVE EFFECTS OF COADMINISTRATION OF TRAMADOL AND LACASERA®: EXTRAPOLATION OF COMBINATION EFFECTS ON HUMAN STOMACH, LIVER, AND KIDNEY USING WISTAR RATS

Ernest C. Orji, Rose Asomugha, Chinenye M. Elendu and Jude N. Okoyeh*

Abstract

Tramadol is an opioid analgesic approved by the FDA for treatment of acute moderate to severe pain. It is strictly prescription medicine but can be used off-label for euphoria and inhibition of premature ejaculation. In Nigeria, off-label users dissolve it with Lacasera® beverage to conceal the bitter taste. It is common among young men, and it is escalating. Despite widespread abuse, the effects of the combination on the stomach, kidney, and liver have not been investigated. A 28-day subacute study with Wistar rats weighing 160-180g was carried out. The rats were divided into 8 groups of 6 per group. The control groups were divided into two. Group A was treated with Lacasera® soft drink while group B received deionized water. Tramadol dissolved in deionized water was administered to groups C, D, and E, at doses of 35mg/kg/day, 70.7mg/kg/day, and 106mg/kg/day. Groups F, G and H received similar doses of Tramadol dissolved in Lacasera® soft drink. Kidney, liver function tests and histopathological examination of tissues were carried out using standard methods and data analyzed with statistical software (SPSS, version 21). Tissues were examined with a Motic™ compound light microscope using x4, x10 and x40 objective lenses. Histopathological examination of stomach, liver and kidney tissues show dose-dependent necrosis at 35mg/kg/day < 70.7mg/kg/day

Keywords: Liver, Kidney, Stomach, Tramadol, Lacasera®, Rats.


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