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Abstract

REVIEW ON: HEPATOTOXICITY AND HEPATOPROTECTIVE AGENTS

Patil Vishal S.*, Oswal Rajesh J. and Nandedkar Mugdha

Abstract

The liver plays a central role in transforming and clearing chemicals and is susceptible to the toxicity from these agents. Certain medicinal agents, when taken in overdoses and sometimes even when introduced within therapeutic ranges, may injure the organ. Other chemical agents, such as those used in laboratories and industries, natural chemicals (e.g., microcystins) and herbal remedies can also induce hepatotoxicity. Chemicals that cause liver injury are called hepatotoxins. Hepatoprotective drugs means the drugs that are prevent the liver disease. A number of synthetic hepatoprotective drugs are available in practice, however their effectiveness does not hold true with the entire range of population suffering from this disorder. Moreover, the side effects and the drug interactions are major restrictions in its clinical utility. On the other hand, drugs having toxic effect on the liver are better known as hepatotoxic drugs. Mono and poly-herbal preparations have been used in various liver disorders. According to one estimate, more than 700 mono and poly-herbal preparations in the form of decoction, tincture, tablets and capsules from more than 100 plants are in clinical use. The most commonly used parameters to assess the hepatoprotective activity are morphological e.g. Liver weight and volume, biochemical estimations, such as measurement of transaminase activity, SGPT, SCOT, alkaline phosphatase, serum bilirubin, total serum proteins, albumin, globulin and prothrombin time, functional parameters, pentobarbitone and hexobarbitone sleeping time and finally histopathological study regarding presence of necrosis, fatty degeneration and cirrhosis. In this review, we will briefly discuss hepatotoxicity and hepatoprotective agents.

Keywords: Liver, Hepatotoxic, hepatoprotective, herbal formulations.


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