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Abstract

DRUG-INDUCED GYNECOMASTIA: AN OVERVIEW

Virendra Kushwaha*, Pooja Agrawal, Vipul Shukla, Geeta Singh Rana and Sameer Siddqui

Abstract

Gynecomastia is a benign growth of tissue in the male breast. This is caused by an imbalance of the Estrogen, and Androgen hormones in the breast tissue. Drugs are responsible for approximately 20% of gynecomastia instances in men. The most frequently implicated drug classes were antiretrovirals (23.5%), diuretics (15.5%), proton pump inhibitors (11.9%), HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (9.1%), neuroleptics and related drugs (6.5%), calcium channel blockers (6.3%), and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (4%). A drug, Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator, and Aromatase Inhibitor can be used to treat gynecomastia. Asymptomatic gynecomastia is a relatively common finding on physical examination, and careful history-taking and physical examination are usually sufficient to identify pubertal gynecomastia, drug-induced causes, or an underlying pathologic process. Correct diagnosis and treatment can be helpful in avoiding emotional distress and physical discomfort related to gynecomastia in young adults.

Keywords: Gynecomastia, Breast enlargement, Estrogen, Androgen.


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