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Abstract

MITIGATION OF ACETAMINOPHEN-INDUCED LIVER DAMAGE BY METHANOL EXTRACT OF HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA L. FLORAL PART IN WISTAR RATS

Ifeoma C. Ekenna, Ucheokoro A. Salome, Chioma C. Chukwunweike and Doris N. Ajibo*

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Abstract

Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is an excellent alternative to aspirin as an analgesic-antipyretic compound. Conversely, it has a weak antiinflammatory effect hence not a vital tool in the management of inflammatory cases. Treatment commenced with administration of two doses of paracetamol, 150mg/kg and 250mg/kg both administered orally to rats alone and in combination with 70% methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (200mg/kg) for 10 days to evaluate the potential protective property of this extract against acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury. The result obtained from the experiment revealed a significant increase in the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), γ- glutamyl transferase (GGT) and total bilirubin in rats treated with paracetamol. The hepatic components of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC), hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and nitric oxide (NO) were also elevated after administration of paracetamol. Conversely, paracetamol treatment yielded a significant reduction in the hepatic levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRd), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH). Acetaminophen (paracetamol) precipitated the up regulation of pro-apoptotic p53 and caspase-3 protein expression and downregulated the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein BCl-2 in the liver of the treated rats. However, administration of 70% methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in combination with paracetamol to rats ameliorated liver injury, oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by treatment with paracetamol alone. The findings of this study suggests that methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. may be useful in the protection against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats.

Keywords: Plants, Secondary metabolites, Acetaminophen, Wistar rats, Hibiscus sabdariffa.


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