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Abstract

RENOPROTECTIVE AND HEPATOPROTECTIVE POTENTIALS OF N-BUTANOL, ETHYL-ACETATE AND CHLOROFORM FRACTIONS OF ETHANOL LEAVES EXTRACT OF PTEROCARPUS SANTALINOIDES ON 5-FLUOROURACIL INDUCED TOXICITY IN WISTAR RATS

Blessing U. Onwuchekwa, Olorunsola D. Omodamiro, Emmanuel N. Uhuo, Nsikan

Malachy, Kenneth C. Nwachukwu, Asuquo I. Ekanem, Chinaka Nwaehujor, Aniebet

Obot and Michael P. Okoh*

.

Abstract

Background: The plant Pterocarpus santallinoides is endowed with so many phytochemicals with pharmacological potencies hence, it is used as one of the herbal remedies employed for the treatment of diverse kinds of ailments. Objective/Aim: This study is aimed at determining the renoprotective and hepatoprotective effects of nbutanol, ethyl-acetate and chloroform fractions of Pterocarpus santalinoides ethanol leaf extract on the 5-fluorouracil-induced toxicity potential in albino rats. Methodology: A total of thirty albino rats were separated into 5 groups of 6 animals each. The animals were given treatments (distilled water, distilled water, 69.28 mg/kg n-butanol fraction, 69.28 mg/kg ethyl acetate fraction and 69.28 mg/kg chloroform fraction for groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively) orally for 14 days. On the 15th day, groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 were given acute dose of 5-FU (150 mg/kg) via intraperitoneal route to induce cardiotoxicity. The animals were sacrificed after 24 hours, and the sera analyzed for liver enzymes (Alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase), electrolytes (potassium(K+) sodium(Na+) and chloride(Cl-)), urea and creatinine; the organs (liver and kidneys) were excised and fixed in formalin solution and thereafter subjected to histopathology. Results: Revealed significant (p < .05) decrease in ALP, AST and ALT activities across groups compared to group 2 (positive control); significant (p < 0.05) decrease in serum urea and creatinine concentrations across the treatment groups compared to positive control; significant (p < .05) decrease in serum electrolytes (potassium, sodium, chloride and bicarbonate) across the groups compared to positive control. Results from histopathology revealed severe damage in group 2 kidney and liver tissues compared to group 1 (normal control) and other treatment groups. Conclusion: This study showed that all the fractions of ethanol leaf extract of Pterocarpus santalinoides possessed appreciable renoprotective and hepatoprotective potential against 5-fluorouracil induced toxicity in albino rats.

Keywords: Toxicity, Pterocarpus santalinoides, 5-fluorouracil, liver enzymes, haematology, Plant extracts.


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