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Abstract

GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS: COMPLICATIONS AND MANAGEMENT

Asiyabi M.*, Dr. K. B. Ilango, Dr. Sonal Anto, Arun Kumar M., Kanagavel M., Lakshmanan R. and Vidhya C.

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Abstract

Gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM), which is defined as a glucose intolerance of any degree with onset or first recognition during pregnancy, is currently the most common medical complication in pregnancy. GDM affects approximately 14% of pregnancies worldwide, accounting for approximately 18 million births annually. The GDM occurs when hormonal changes during pregnancy lead to insulin resistance, resulting in inadequate insulin production and impaired glucose metabolism. Risk factors include obesity, overweight, advance maternal age, family history of diabetes, PCOS and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diagnosis and screening of GDM is performed using one step method of 75g oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT) and two step method of 50g glucose challenge test and a 100g OGTT should be performed. GDM is increase the risk of short and long term complications in both maternal and fetal. Mother with GDM are at risk of developing macrosomia, preeclampsia, preterm birth and termination of pregnancy via Caesarean section. GDM increase perinatal complications including hypoglycemia, hypocalcaemia, polycythemia, respiratory distress syndrome, congenital malformation and offspring obesity and postpartum Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The primary treatment for GDM are diet and proper exercise. Insulin, metformin and glyburide can be used intensify the treatment.

Keywords: Gestational diabetes; Risk factors, Maternal complications; Fetal complications.


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