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Abstract

ASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTORS, CAUSES AND PRESCRIBING PATTERN IN ASTHMA PATIENTS

Abdul Kader Shervan N. H.* and Anitha Sabu

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Abstract

Background and objectives: Bronchial asthma is an obstructive respiratory disorder that is characterized by breathlessness, coughing and wheezing. In patients with asthma, their airways become inflamed, narrow, swollen and produce extra mucus which makes it difficult to breathe. If treated early, asthma can be a minor disease and if untreated it can lead to a life-threatening attack. The objective of the present study is to assess the risk factors predominant in causing asthma and prescribing pattern in asthmatic patients. Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted for a period of 6 months in various departments of Indiana Hospital and Heart Institute, Mangalore. Considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria the patient was enrolled after taking written consent form from each patient. A suitably designed data collection form was used to collect all the necessary information required for prescribing pattern. The data collection form contains demographics details like age, sex, height, weight, past medical history, past medication history, present medical history, diagnosis, social history, family history, personal history, treatment details like name of drugs, it's dose, route, frequency, generic name, brand name, antimicrobial culture sensitivity test and laboratory investigations. Results: Out of 65 patients from the study population, 63.07% patients were males and 36.92% patients were females between the age of 0-70 years. Majority of the patients had allergic rhinitis (27.35%) as a risk factor followed by dust (22.64%), cold (19.81%), smoke (15.1%), and other such as pollen (15.1%). The most commonly prescribed anti-asthmatic medications were found to be bronchodilators (57.09%) followed by corticosteroids (34.79%) and leukotriene antagonists (8.1%). Among bronchodilators, SABA was prescribed commonly which accounts for 47.92% followed by anticholinergics (23.66%), LABA (16.56%) and methylxanthines (11.83%) respectively. Conclusion: The current study demonstrates that most of the patients were prescribed with bronchodilators which is administered as a combination therapy to obtain optimal synergistic action that can prevent further complications when compared to individual therapy, whereas corticosteroids have been administered as an individual therapy in majority of the patients. Patients should also be aware of the risk factors and also should focus on minimizing their exposure to the factors that can trigger asthmatic symptoms.

Keywords: Bronchial asthma, risk factors, anti-asthmatic medications, prescribing pattern.


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