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Abstract

NEUROLOGICAL COMPLICATIONS FOLLOWING HEART TRANSPLANTATION: INCIDENCES AND IMPLICATIONS

Peravali Jahnavi*, Nandini Yejarla, Maganti Tanuja, Kondru Vamsi, Sai Krishna Killa, Banavathu Karthik, Pradeep Chopra Gummadilli, Dr. Apada Reddy Gangadasu and Dr. B. Thangabalan

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Abstract

The occurrence of neurological problems following heart transplantation is a complex and diverse challenge, exhibiting varying frequencies and consequences for patient well-being. This review presents a synthesis of the reported data about the occurrence and characteristics of these problems. Cerebrovascular events, such as stroke and transient ischemic episodes (TIA), have a wide range of incidence rates, spanning from 2% to 66.6%. This wide range underscores their significance as prominent problems. The broad spectrum of outcomes can be attributed to the possible impact of several factors, such as the diversity of patient demographics, changes in surgery and postoperative treatment, and differences in diagnostic criteria. Seizures, which have been reported to occur in up to 57.89% of cases, serve as a notable illustration of the range of postoperative neurological hazards. Several variables, including pre-existing medical problems and differences in perioperative therapy, will likely influence these risks. Intracranial bleeding, albeit less prevalent, with an incidence rate of up to 13.6%, presents a significant and potentially life-threatening danger. This underscores the importance of implementing careful and precise treatment strategies for anticoagulation. The prevalence of drug toxicity, which stands at 22.7%, highlights the intricate nature of treatment regimens following transplantation and the critical importance of diligent monitoring. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)/encephalopathy, albeit less familiar with an incidence rate of 27.3%, refers to a severe illness that is frequently linked with immunosuppression. Delirium and meningitis, although infrequently reported at rates of 3% and 1.2%, respectively, continue to be critical postoperative issues due to their substantial impact on morbidity. The results confirm that there is a high occurrence of diverse neurological problems following heart transplantation. This highlights the need for thorough monitoring, proactive treatment, and coordination among many disciplines to enhance patient care and prognosis.

Keywords: Heart transplantation, Neurological complications, Neurological incidence, post-heart transplantation complications.


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