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Abstract

COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON ORAL BIOLOGICS

Pravin Kumar Darji*, Jayendra Kumar Patel, Binit Patel, Shalin Parikh and Praneeth Ivan Joel Fnu

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Abstract

Patients usually choose to take medicines orally due to its convenience. Currently, oral administration of biologics is not possible. The gastrointestinal tract performs various activities in the body, which provide challenges for the absorption of complex macromolecules ingested into the body. Biologics are highly susceptible to the harsh conditions of the digestive system and face significant barriers in traversing the intestinal mucosa. Currently, biologics provide significant promise in the treatment of metabolic illnesses, aging, and inflammatory disorders. Administering these medications orally has long been recognized as a crucial objective for chronic disorders. Despite extensive research conducted over numerous years, the administration of biologics through oral means is only now beginning to demonstrate its feasibility. There has been significant discussion over the challenges associated with the administration of biologics. An important function of the intestine is to prevent the passage of undesirable substances through it. Nevertheless, on a daily basis, various quantities of biological agents, ranging from macroscopic to microscopic, traverse the intestinal cell membrane. This paper initially discusses the primary physiological challenges associated with administering biologics orally, as well as several research strategies aimed at improving or enabling oral delivery of biologics. Additionally, it explores the normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract. Subsequently, the document enumerates the primary biological mechanisms that have been effectively employed thus far to accomplish oral absorption, along by a thorough examination of the advantages and disadvantages associated with each approach. The text provides many instances of distinct biologics employed, along with pertinent information regarding the outcomes of recent clinical studies. Additionally, it explores the potential applications of these biologics in real-world scenarios and speculates on the future prospects of this sector.

Keywords: Oral delivery, biologics, absorption enhancers, gastrointestinal barriers, insulin, microneedle pill, intestine, receptor-mediated uptake, paracellular transport, transcellular transport.


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