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Abstract

CHEMICAL PROFILE OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CALOTROPIS PROCERA LEAF

*Ajiboso, S.O., Yakubu, M. T. and Oladiji, A.T

Abstract

This study was carried out to determine the chemical profile of aqueous extract of Calotropis procera leaf. The results showed the values of the proximate composition as: moisture content (10.92%), crude protein (28.53%), fat (20.42%) and carbohydrate (24.13%). Ash and crude fibre were 6.50% and 9.40% respectively. Magnesium was found high in the extract 36.5ppm followed by potassium 24.5ppm, calcium 17.0ppm, sodium 12.5ppm and Zinc 2.10ppm while phosphorus 0.40ppm was found least. 11 phytochemicals of pharmacological importance were detected at different amounts. The amount of alkaloids (2.05%) in the extract was 50.3 times and 2.3 times the amounts of other trace (steroids, anthraquinone, terpenoids, phlobatannin, cardenolides and chalcones) – 0.004%-0.04% and moderately (tannin, glycosides and saponin)- 0.05%-0.88% detected phytochemicals respectively while phenol amount (1.15%) was 1.3 times and 28.8 times higher than moderately and trace detected phytochemicals respectively in the extract. However, flavonoids were completely absent in the extract The amino acids profile showed the presence of 17 amino acids out of the 20 important amino acids, 50% of essential amino acds were detected high (arginine, lysine, leucine, isoleucine and phenylalanine); 30% were detected moderate (histidine, threonine and valine). Methionine and tryptophan were detected low and absent respectively. From the work carried out, Calotropis procera leaf is a good source of vegetable protein, oils essential minerals and amino acids for human consumption aside its medicinal properties and folklore tradition belief of its use by the Fulanis in the northern part of Nigeria as cheese coagulum.

Keywords: Calotropis procera, steroids, anthraquinones, terpenoids, phlobatannins, cardenolides and chalcones.


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