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Abstract

ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOL ROOT EXTRACT OF Setaria megaphylla (STEUD) T. DUR AND SCHINZ (POACEAE)

*John A. Udobang, Jude E. Okokon and Emmanuel U. Etuk

Abstract

Background: Setaria megaphylla (Steud) T. Dur and Schinz(Poaceae), is a medicinal plant used in South-South Nigeria to treatmalaria, hemorrhoids, urethritis, inflammation, diabetes, fevers andvarious pains.[1] While some researches have been carried out toauthenticate the uses of the leaves of the plant, very little research hasbeen done on the root and no publication has been found on its rootfractions. Objectives: This work is therefore designed to authenticateanalgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the roots of Setariamegaphylla to ascertain folkloric claims of its medicinal usefulness.Methodology: The ethanol extract was also partitioned in n-hexane,dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol in the order listed aboveto obtain fractions. Qualitative data of dichloromethane and n-butanolfractions were determined by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The rootextract (150, 300, 450 mg/kg) was investigated for analgesic activity against chemical andheat induced pains and anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan, fresh egg albumin andxylene - induced edema. Results: Significant (p < 0.05 – 0.001) dose-dependent effects wereobserved against carrageenan, egg albumin and xylene -induced inflammation and acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced paw licking and hot plate-induced pain in mice.Conclusions: The results of this study revealed that the ethanol root extract of S. megaphyll possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities through its phytochemical components. This therefore justifies its ethnomedicinal usage in the treatment of various pain and inflammations.

Keywords: Analgesic, Antiiflammatory, Setaria megaphylla, medicinal plant.


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