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Abstract

PHARMOCOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF LEAF OF PLUMERIA RUBRA

Dhanapal Venkatachalam*, Samuel Thavamani B. and Muddukrishniah

Abstract

Objective: To study detailed pharmacognostic profile and preliminary phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Plumeria rubra commonly known as Temple tree a small fugitive artistic tree belongs to the family Apocynaceae. The leaves of Plumeria rubra Linn used traditionally in Ayurveda in ulcer, leprosy, inflammation, rheumatism, bronchitis, cholera, rubifacient, cold and cough, sedative and analgesic. They are used as a poultice in swelling. Plant is found in throughout hotter parts of India and in its tropical regions. Methods: Leaf of Plumeria rubra was studied by Macroscopical, Microscopical, Quantitative microscopy, Physicochemical, Phytochemical analysis of leaf powder of the plant and other methods for standardization recommended by WHO. Results: Macroscopically, the leaves are simple, alternative, Entire undulate margin, Elliptic, obovate, oblanceolate in shape, Banchidodrome, pinnate, in venation, green in colour, characteristic odour, bitter taste,15-30 cm in long, clustered at the end of the branches Microscopically, the leaf showed the presence of palisade mesophyll, covering trichome, adaxial phloem, adaxial epidermis, paracytic stomata, laticifer cells, Ground tissue having angular parenchymatic cells, angular laticifers cells, Collateral vascular strand, uniformly thick lamina, are the diagnostic features noted from anatomical study. The investigations also included leaf surface data; quantitative leaf microscopy. Physiochemical parameters such as loss on drying, extractive values and ash values were also determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence sterols, carbohydrates, flavonoids, protein, alkaloids, cyanogenetic glycosides, tannins, saponins, mucilage and volatile oils. Conclusions: The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this plant material in future investigations and applications.

Keywords: Plumeria rubra, Ayurveda, Macroscopy, Microscopy Phytochemical evaluation.


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