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Abstract

DETERMINATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF HERBAL PLANT EXTRACTS AGAINST ORAL AND PATHOGENIC DENTAL ISOLATES AND THEIR PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS USING GC-MS

Malay Shah* and Sayali D. Shelar

Abstract

Toothpastes and mouth rinse products containing natural herbal plants extracts have always been preferred over synthetic and semi-synthetic counterparts due to their reduced side-effects like irritation, staining etc. Thus, developing oral cleansing products devoid of harmful chemical constituents is a need of the hour. Many herbal plants have beneficial medicinal properties such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-cancerous, anti-proliferative, anti-hemolytic activity, etc. In the present study, plant materials such as. bark of Acacia catechu (Khadir, Kattha), Stem of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Yashtimadhu) and Leaves of Piper betel (Paan) were chosen based on their antimicrobial properties. Bioactive compounds were extracted in distilled water and 70% ethanol using Soxhlet extraction system and antimicrobial activity was studied against the oral isolates. The oral isolates were isolated from oral cavity of healthy individuals, decayed tooth and from patients suffering from severe dental caries. The biochemical identification of the oral microflora and dental pathogens was successfully done to the species level using VITEK 2 automated biochemical identification system. The antimicrobial activity was tested using agar well diffusion method. The antimicrobial activity of betel leaf 70% ethanolic extract was found to be better as compared to aqueous extract of betel leaf, 70% ethanolic and aqueous extracts of yashtimadhu and khadir. The antimicrobial activity of betel leaf 70% ethanolic extract against Streptococcus salivarius, Raoultella ornithinolytica, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli was almost equivalent to that of standard antibiotic ampicillin and whereas, streptomycin did not show significant antimicrobial activity at the concentration of 100 μg/ml. Further, commercially available oral cleansing products such as Colgate Plax and Listerine were tested against the oral isolates. Colgate plax showed very less antimicrobial activity whereas Listerine showed no antimicrobial activity against any of the oral isolates. Herbal plants constitute various bioactive components that possess antimicrobial properties. Phytochemical profile of betel leaf ethanolic extract was determined by qualitative analysis as well as using GC-MS. The betel leaf 70% ethanolic extract showed the presence of many bioactive components such as Benzoic acid, 2,3- dimethyl- (35.59%), 4- allyl-1,2- diacetoxybenzene (24.18%), Benzoic acid, 2,5- dimethyl (18.09%), Methyl hydrogen disulfide (10.20%), Phenol, 2- methoxy- 4- (2- propenyl), acetate (7.91%), Phenol, 2- methoxy-3- (2- propenyl)- (1.33%), Phytol (0.26%), n- Hexadecanoic acid (0.11%), etc. and most of them were identified to have antimicrobial property. The outcome of this study has helped in understanding medicinal properties of above herbal extracts against oral isolates. Such preparations can be used for the formulation of herbal tooth paste and herbal mouth rinses.

Keywords: Herbal plants, soxhlet extraction, antimicrobial activity, phytochemical analysis, GC-MS.


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